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RESEARCH PAPERS: Armor and Personal Protection

Explosive Sensitivity Influence on One- and Two-Layered Reactive Armors’ Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
Adam Wiśniewski

 Military Institute of Armament Technology, ul. Wyszyńskiego 7, 05-220 Zielonka, Polandadam.wisniewski@witu.mil.pl

J. Appl. Mech 77(5), 051901 (Jun 30, 2010) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001696 History: Received August 09, 2009; Revised January 26, 2010; Posted May 04, 2010; Published June 30, 2010; Online June 30, 2010

The use of different explosive reactive armor reactive cassettes is shown. Functioning rules of one- and two-layered reactive cassettes are presented. The paper demonstrates different kinds of tests with explosive reactive armour Wisniewski Adam (ERAWA) cassettes. There are some examples of the simulation of impact of different types armour piercing (AP) and high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) ammunition on these cassettes. Simulation was based on “free points” computer codes. The propagation of the detonative wave in the explosive (PBX 9404 and RDX) has been described with the use of the approximation of the so-called “detonative optics,” in which the front of the detonative wave is a surface of the strong discontinuity of the well-known shape (for the punctual initiation—the front is spherical) of the propagation speed, and the parameters of the medium on this surface are defined by the Chapman–Jouguet’s point. Scattering of products of detonation and their influence on the liner of the RPG-7M projectile are described with the use of equations of the hydrodynamics for the cylindrical symmetry. The results of the simulation process of the impact of AP ammunition of 7.62 mm, 12.7 mm, 14.5 mm, and 125 mm caliber, the type of armour piercing fin stabilized discarting sabot (APFSDS), are illustrated in figures. The changing of the following parameters on the axis, i.e., density, thickness, collapsing velocity, and pressure while penetrating of cassettes in time function, is presented. The next step to test the sensitivity of different types of explosive reactive cassettes containing different explosive layers placed on target, is the observation of their reaction to the impact of kinetic energy ammunition. Explosives contain different percentages of wax. The examples of reaction of the two-layered explosive of different thickness with different contents of wax after projectile impact are illustrated. Computer analysis of the parameters’ changes on the axis of the projectile’s penetration into explosive reactive cassettes, i.e., of density, thickness, pressure, impact velocity for different thicknesses of layers of these cassettes, and the projectile type and velocity 800 m/s and 1800 m/s, enables to know the initiation conditions of these cassettes’ explosive. The use of computer simulation makes possible to know the influence of the quantity of wax on the sensitivity of different thicknesses of explosives of one- and two-layered reactive cassettes.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Polish tank PT-91 hard with quickly assembled blocks of ERAWA-1 and ERAWA-2 reactive cassettes (III generation)

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Figure 2

Scheme of test of protective ability and nontransference of detonation among ERAWA-2 block cassettes (∝=60 deg) with the use of 9M114M warhead (Malutka)

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Figure 3

Detonated ERAWA-1 cassette and destroyed neighboring cassette after firing of block of nine cassettes, with 125 mm projectile BK-14M (HEAT, ∝=60 deg). Penetration of RHA armor hw=30 mm, protective ability of cassette CP=94%

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Figure 4

Crater in plate of RHA armor after firing ERAWA-2 cassette from tank, with 125 mm projectile BM-15 (APFSDS-T, h=300 mm, ∝=60 deg). Penetration of RHA armor hw=130 mm, protective ability of cassette CP=57%.

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Figure 5

Scheme of test of protective ability of ERAWA-2 cassette (2) with the use of EFP warhead (1) (d=100 mm, h=85 mm), (∝=60 deg)

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Figure 6

Traces on RHA armor after penetration of ERAWA-2 cassette with warhead EFP: 1—trace of detonation of ERAWA-2 cassette; 2—trace of destroyed EFP projectile (EFP−h=85 mm), hw=5 mm, protective ability of cassette CP=94%, (∝=60 deg)

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Figure 7

ERAWA-1 cassette after firing with six 7.62 mm armor-piercing projectiles B-32 (∝=60 deg)

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Figure 8

ERAWA-1 cassette after firing with 12.7 mm armor-piercing projectiles B-32 (∝=0)

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Figure 9

Scheme of resistance test of ERAWA-1 cassettes to detonation and destruction with explosion of 82 mm mortar grenade

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Figure 10

ERAWA-1 cassettes after explosion of 82 mm mortar grenade

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Figure 11

Scheme of resistance test of ERAWA-1 cassette to detonation and destruction during burning of petrol around it

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Figure 12

ERAWA-1 cassette after combustion of petrol around it

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Figure 13

Scheme of resistance test of ERAWA-1 cassette to detonation and destruction during burning of napalm on it and around it

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Figure 14

ERAWA-1 cassette after combustion of napalm on it and around it

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Figure 15

Scheme of resistance test of ERAWA-1 cassette to detonation and destruction during burning of incendiary bomb ZAB-2.5 containing thermite (3000°C) on it

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Figure 16

ERAWA-1 cassette after combustion of incendiary bomb ZAB-2.5 on it

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Figure 17

Parameters of explosive while impact of 7.62 mm AP on ERA with velocity Vp=855 m s−1: (a) scheme of experimental stand—1 rod; 2—coat; 3, 5—steel; 4—explosive; t=0 ms; (b) for t=0.032 ms

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Figure 18

Parameters of explosive while impact of 12.7 mm AP on ERA with velocity Vp=820 m/s: (a) for t=0 ms; (b) for t=0.032 ms

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Figure 19

Parameters of PBX 9404 explosive while impact of 14.5 mm AP on ERA with velocity Vp=995 m s−1: (a) for t=0 ms; (b) for t=0.023 ms, 1—nonreacted explosive (F=0), 2—detonation products (F=1)

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Figure 20

Parameters of explosive while impact of 125 mm APFSDS on ERA with velocity Vp=1800 m/s: (a) for t=0 μs; (b) for t=4 μs

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Figure 21

Reaction of ERA cassette (of 10 mm thickness explosive layer, containing 70% wax) to impact of KE projectile with the speed of VP=800 m s−1

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Figure 22

Reaction of ERA cassette (of 10 mm thickness explosive layer, containing 90% wax) to impact of KE projectile with the speed of VP=800 m s−1

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Figure 23

Reaction of ERA cassette (of 10 mm thickness explosive layer, containing 77.5% wax) to impact of KE projectile with the speed of VP=1600 m s−1

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