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RESEARCH PAPERS: Terminal Ballistics

Vulnerability of Mortar Projectiles by Intercepting Fragmentation Warheads

[+] Author and Article Information
Markus Graswald2

 TDW GmbH, Hagenauer Forst 27, 86529 Schrobenhausen, Germanymarkus.graswald@mbda-systems.de

Ronald E. Brown

Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, 833 Dyer Road, Monterey, CA 93943rebrown@nps.edu

Jose O. Sinibaldi

Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, 833 Dyer Road, Monterey, CA 93943

Timo Nolte, Hendrik Rothe

 Helmut Schmidt University, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043 Hamburg, Germany

2

Corresponding author.

J. Appl. Mech 77(5), 051804 (Jun 30, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001713 History: Received August 22, 2009; Revised February 03, 2010; Posted May 05, 2010; Published June 30, 2010; Online June 30, 2010

A general methodology for estimating the requirements for defeating an explosive-containing mortar threat by an intercepting array of explosively generated natural and controlled fragments is discussed along with the experimental data supporting quantitative interpretation. The target response of covered TNT impacted by single fragments is predicted through numerically determined shock-to-detonation thresholds as well as empirical penetration equations. Included in the methodology is a comprehensive, deterministic endgame model that consists of an intercept model, a static and dynamic fragment model, and a hit model generating the number of effective hits for arbitrary intercept situations. Experimental data supporting the assumptions of the models are reported. The model is also useful in establishing interceptor requirements.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 9

Measured maximum and mean fragment velocities as a function of the mean spray angle θ for interceptor 1

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Figure 10

Fragment map with response plot of interceptor projectile 1 intercepting an 82 mm mortar projectile as a function of normalized impact velocities vfi/vfi,n and normalized average fragment masses mf/mf,n; the circles represent fragment numbers nf

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Figure 6

Influence of the miss distance Rmiss,R and the crossing angle ψ on the number of hits Nhit

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Figure 7

Fraction of effective fragments as a function of the intercept situation (Rmiss,R and ψ) for the THOR penetration threshold

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Figure 8

Distribution of cumulated numbers nf and masses mf of all natural fragments of interceptor 1 as a function of the mass class l

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Figure 11

Fragments (vertically lined-up group of fragments on left side: interceptor 2 and right group: interceptor 3) of the main fragment spray zone with thresholds against a mortar threat (fragments modeled as cylinders with lf/df=2, Cauchy)

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Figure 1

Experimental (LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) (5)) and simulated detonation threshold curves for PBX-9404 shock initiated by steel projectiles

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Figure 2

Initiation thresholds at 50% CL as a function of the fragment diameter d for the impact of cylindrical steel fragments into bare cast TNT and cast TNT covered by a 10 mm steel plate

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Figure 3

Initiation threshold as a function of impact angle γ (NATO)

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Figure 4

Simplified schematic of the endgame model depicting the data flow (double dashed line: data of characteristic fragment and dashed line: data of real, fuze dependent hit point). The numbers of effective fragments Nfe and number of hits Nhit are combined to the number of effective hits Nw.

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Figure 5

(Early bird) Intercept situation of interceptor and target (R—intercept point of fragment and target, Z—target position at the optimal detonation point, and 0—refers to the target location at the beginning of the endgame)

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Figure 12

Relative distribution of cumulated fragment numbers nf and masses mf versus mass class l in the main spray zone of controlled fragmenting interceptors 2 (cast TNT) and 3 (Comp B)

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Figure 13

Experimental setup with steel plate and mortar projectiles

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