Cased telescoped ammunition (CTA) is a kind of charge structure with projectile embedded in the cartridge case. The advantages of CTA, compared with concepts using conventional ammunition, are: (1) reduced charge/ammunition volume, (2) improved performance, and (3) enhanced power and survivabillity of armament. The projectile is placed in the control tube of the cartridge before shooting. After the primer is struck, propellant product gases, generated by the igniter charge burning in the central igniter tube, drive the projectile to move forward along the control tube, and then causing the main propellants around the igniter tube and control tube to burn. Therefore, in the process of interior ballistics, there is a motion of the projectile in the control tube before the projectile engraves the rifles, in contrast with the traditional ammunition. The consistency of this motion has an important influence on the stability of CTA interior ballistic performance. The experiments on the ignition and combustion of propellants and motion of projectile in the control tube are carried out using a high-speed video recording system in this study. The projectile velocity at the entrance of the rifle is obtained from the recorded images. A two-phase flow model of CTA is also established and simulated by using the two-phase flow method and computational fluid dynamics technology. The calculated projectile velocity is in good agreement with the experimental data. The numerical results show that the developed mathematical model gives the correct trend and can provide useful calculated parameters for the structural design of CTA components.