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Research Papers

Inelastic Analysis of Fracture Propagation in Distal Radius

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Pietruszczak

Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7, Canadapietrusz@mcmaster.ca

K. Gdela

Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7, Canadagdelakm@mcmaster.ca

J. Appl. Mech 77(1), 011009 (Sep 30, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3168595 History: Received July 30, 2008; Revised February 13, 2009; Published September 30, 2009

The focus of this paper is on the description of progressive fracture in distal radius in the event of a fall onto an outstretched hand. The inception of fracture, which involves formation of a macrocrack in the cortical tissue, is defined by invoking a macroscopic failure criterion that accounts for inherent anisotropy of the material. The subsequent propagation of damage is described by employing a homogenization procedure in which the average properties of cortical tissue intercepted by a macrocrack are established. The framework is verified by performing a series of nonlinear finite element analyses. In particular, the experimental tests recently conducted by the authors and their colleagues on a number of cadaver radii under boundary conditions leading to Colles’ fracture are simulated, and the results are compared with the experimental outcome.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Representative volume of cortical tissue intercepted by weakness planes

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Figure 2

FE model of cantilever; (a) primary mesh (4992 8-noded solid elements) and (b) resized mesh (1440 8-noded solid elements)

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Figure 3

Force-displacement characteristics for different values of α (Note: Solid lines correspond to results of FE analysis; dashed lines are approximations)

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Figure 4

Fracture propagation along the cross section adjacent to the support; α=20 mm−1

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Figure 5

Comparison of force-displacement characteristics for different mesh densities, i.e., original mesh (4992 elements) and resized mesh (1440 elements): (a) α=60 mm−1, (b) α=80 mm−1, and (c) α=100 mm−1

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Figure 6

The idealized FE geometry in comparison to X-ray image of a radius bone

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Figure 7

3D visualization of the FE model of idealized bone geometry

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Figure 8

Force-displacement characteristics

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Figure 9

Onset of fracture at 77% of ultimate load (Note: Black color indicates the fractured region)

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Figure 10

Fractured region at 90% of ultimate load

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Figure 11

Fracture propagation in critical cross section, as indicated on the left panel. Results correspond to (a) 82%, (b) 89%, and (c) 95% and 100% of ultimate load

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Figure 12

FE model of bone No. 3

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Figure 13

Actual bone image together with 3D visualization of FE model of bone No. 3; bone in: anterior–posterior, lateral, and posterior–anterior views, starting from the left

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Figure 14

3D visualization of FE model of (a) bone No. 3 and (b) bone No. 5, together with images of actual bone samples

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Figure 15

Load-displacement characteristics for bones No. 3 and 5

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Figure 16

Evolution of fracture zone for bone No. 3 (Note: Black color indicates the fractured region)

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Figure 17

Fracture propagation in critical cross section; bone No. 3

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Figure 18

Evolution of fracture zone for bone No. 5 (Note: Black color indicates the fractured region)

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Figure 19

Fracture propagation in critical cross section; bone No. 5

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Figure 20

Comparison of load-displacement characteristics of bone No. 5 for different mesh densities

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