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Research Papers

Design of Piezo-SMA Composite for Thermal Energy Harvester Under Fluctuating Temperature

[+] Author and Article Information
Onur C. Namli

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2600ocnamli@u.washington.edu

Minoru Taya

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2600tayam@u.washington.edu

J. Appl. Mech 78(3), 031001 (Feb 01, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002592 History: Received June 22, 2009; Revised July 28, 2010; Posted September 21, 2010; Published February 01, 2011; Online February 01, 2011

A thermal energy harvester using piezo-shape memory alloy (SMA) composite was designed. The main mechanism of such a piezo-SMA composite is the synergistic effect of piezoelectrics and SMA, which are connected in series and subjected to fluctuating temperature. Strain induced in the SMA phase immediately causes stress in the piezoelectric phase, thus, inducing charge by the direct piezoelectric effect. In order to make this problem more analytically tractable, two models were developed: simple laminated model and 3D model with Eshelby theory. The models predict the available power according to material properties and thermal fluctuation. The impedance of the system was examined with different thermal fluctuating frequencies. Experimental and predicted results are in agreement for higher frequencies, while for lower frequencies of thermal fluctuation, the prediction is not accurate due to internal loss.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Modeling of piezo-SMA composite (18)

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Figure 2

Schematic stress-strain curve of SMA to introduce prestrain of amount εTR

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Figure 3

Analytical model for predicting residual stresses in SMA fiber and piezo matrix, (a) original problem is converted to (b) Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion problem

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Figure 4

DSC result of 51.2Ti–Ni(at %) SMA

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Figure 5

Stress-strain response of 51.2Ti–Ni(at %) SMA testing at room temperature

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Figure 6

Compressive stress: temperature behavior of piezo-SMA composite with (a) 1D laminate model and (b) 3D model with Eshelby’s theory

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Figure 7

Schematic representation of PZT connected to electrical loading

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Figure 8

Average power at the electrical load for all frequency conditions in logarithmic scale with respect to load resistance

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Figure 9

Experimental setup for heating and cooling of (a) piezoelectric material and (b) piezo-SMA composite

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Figure 10

Temperature and voltage responses for 0.05 Hz and 0.1 Hz experimental study

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Figure 11

Experimental and analytical results for stress versus temperature

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