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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Simulation of the Distortion of Long Steel Profiles During Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Robert Pietzsch

 Institut für Strömungstechnik und Thermodynamik, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germanyr.pietzsch@fh-sm.de

Miroslaw Brzoza

 Institut für Strömungstechnik und Thermodynamik, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germanymiroslaw.brzoza@vst.uni-magdeburg.de

Yalçin Kaymak

 Institut für Strömungstechnik und Thermodynamik, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germanyyalcin.kaymak@student.uni-magdeburg.de

Eckehard Specht

 Institut für Strömungstechnik und Thermodynamik, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germanyeckehard.specht@vst.uni-magdeburg.de

Albrecht Bertram

 Institut für Mechanik, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, GermanyBertram@mb.uni-magdeburg.de

J. Appl. Mech 74(3), 427-437 (May 21, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2338050 History: Received September 28, 2005; Revised May 21, 2006

A complex thermomechanical model for simulating the transient fields of the temperature, microstructure, stress, strain, and displacement during quenching of steel profiles is introduced. The thermoplastic material model is formulated on the basis of J2-plasticity theory with a temperature- and phase fraction-dependent yield limit. Coupling effects such as dissipation, phase transformation enthalpy, and transformation-induced plasticity are considered. The validity of the model is verified by comparing the simulation results with available experimental measurements. The introduced model serves as a basis for optimizing the cooling conditions for reducing residual stresses and distortions. The simulation results for T and L profiles of two different types of steel are described.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Equilibrium microstructure fraction for C45 steel

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Figure 2

Avrami constant of transformation kinetics

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Figure 3

The shaft (α=450W∕m2∕K) and the disk (α=200W∕m2∕K) with the quenching nozzle field

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Figure 4

Calculated and measured temperature profiles for the bigger shaft

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Figure 5

Calculated and measured internal stresses for the bigger shaft

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Figure 6

Measured and calculated distortion profiles for the bigger disk

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Figure 7

Finite-element mesh and geometric dimension in (mm) of T profile

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Figure 8

The residual axial stress in the T profile after cooling

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Figure 9

Evolution of plastic zones during cooling of T profile

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Figure 10

Dissipation (bottom) and corresponding internal heat generation (top)

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Figure 11

Finite-element mesh and geometric dimension in (mm) of L profile

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Figure 12

Behavior of state variables during the cooling of L profiles

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Figure 13

Residual axial stress in the L profile after the cooling

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Figure 14

Schematic representation of cooling strategy

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Figure 15

The distortion of L profiles for different cooling conditions (according to Eq. 32)

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