Gascard, J. C., and Clarke, R. A., 1983, “The Formation of Labrador Sea Water. Part II: Mesoscale and Smaller Scale Processes,” J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , pp. 1779–1797.

Schott, F., Visbeck, M., and Fischer, J., 1993, “Observations of Vertical Currents and Convection in the Central Greenland Sea During the Winter of 1988/89,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.], 98 , pp. 14,401–14,421.

Rhien, M., 1996, “Convection in the Greenland Sea, 1982–1993,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.], 101 , pp. 18,183–18,192.

Toggweiler, J. R., 1994, “The Ocean’s Overturning Circulation,” Phys. Today, 47 , pp. 45–50.

Gascard, J. C., 1991, “Open Ocean and Deep Water Formation Revisited in the Mediterranean, Labrador, Greenland and Weddell Seas,” "*Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Oceans*", P.C.Chu and J.C.Gascard, eds., Elsevier Oceanography Series , Amsterdam, Vol., 57 , pp. 157–182.

Gill, A. E., 1982, "*Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics*", Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Lavelle, J. W., and Baker, E. T., 1994, “A Numerical Study of Local Convection in the Benthic Ocean Induced by Episodic Hydrothermal Discharges,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.], 99 , pp. 16,065–16,080.

Chan, D. C., 1996, “Effects of Rotation on Turbulent Convection: Direct Numerical Simulation Using Parallel Processors,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Southern California.

Jones, H., and Marshall, J., 1993, “Convection with Rotation in a Neutral Ocean: A Study of Open-Ocean Deep Convection,” J. Phys. Oceanogr.

[CrossRef], 23 , pp. 1009–1039.

Rossby, H. T., 1969, “A Study of Bénard Convection With and Without Rotation,” J. Fluid Mech., 36 , pp 309–335.

Boubnov, B. M., and GolitsynG. S., 1990, “Temperature and Velocity Field Regimes of Convective Motions in a Rotating Plane Fluid Layer.” J. Fluid Mech., 219 , pp. 215–239.

Fernando, H. J., Chen, R. R., and Boyer, D. L., 1991, “Effects of Rotation on Convective Turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech., 228 , pp. 513–547.

Brickman, D., and Kelly, D. E., 1993, “Development of Convection in a Rotating Fluid: Scales and Patterns of Motion,” Dyn. Atmos. Oceans

[CrossRef], 19 , pp. 389–405.

Maxworthy, T., and Narimousa, S., 1994, “Unsteady, Turbulent Convection into a Homogeneous Rotating Fluid, with Oceanographic Applications,” J. Phys. Oceanogr.

[CrossRef], 24 , pp. 865–887.

Scott, J. C., and Killworth, P. D., 1991, “Upper Ocean Structures in the Southwestern Iceland Sea—A Preliminary Report,” "*Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Oceans*", P.C.Chu and J.C.Gascard, eds., Elsevier Oceanography Series , Amsterdam, pp. 87–106.

Johannessen, O. M., Sandven, S., and Johannessen, J. A., 1991, “Eddy-Related Winter Convection in the Boreas Basin,” "*Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Oceans*", P.C.Chu and J.C.Gascard, eds., Elsevier Oceanography Series , Amsterdam, pp. 87–106.

Julien, K., Legg, S., McWilliams, J., and Werne, J., 1996, “Rapidly Rotating Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard Convection,” J. Fluid Mech., 322 , pp. 243–273.

Cui, A., and Street, R. L., 2001, “Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Rotating Convective Flow Development,” J. Fluid Mech., 447 , pp 53–84.

Peltier, L. J., and Wyngaard, J. C., 1995, “Structure-Function Parameters in the Convective Boundary Layer from Large-Eddy Simulation,” J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , pp. 3641–3660.

Noh, Y., and Hyoung, J. K., 1999, “Simulations of Temperature and Turbulence Structure of the Oceanic Boundary Layer with the Improved Near-Surface Process,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.], 104 , pp. 15,621–15,634.

Mason, P. J., 1994, “Large-Eddy Simulation of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , pp. 1492–1516.

Deardorff, J. W., 1971, “On the Magnitude of the Subgrid Scale Eddy Coefficient,” J. Comput. Phys.

[CrossRef], 7 , pp. 120–133.

Lilly, D. K., 1966, “On the Application of the Eddy Viscosity Concept in the Inertial Subrange of Turbulence,” NCAR Manuscript No. 123, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO..

Eidson, T. M., 1985, “Numerical Simulation of the Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard Problem,” J. Fluid Mech., 158 , pp 245–268.

Kimmel, S. J., 1998, “Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Convection,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Southern California.

Denbo, D. W., and Skyllingstad, E. D., 1996, “An Ocean Large-Eddy Simulation Model with Applications to Deep Convection in the Greenland Sea,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.], 101 , pp. 1095–1110.

Coates, M. J., Ivey, G. N., and Taylor, R. J., 1995, “Unsteady Turbulent Convection into a Rotating Linearly Stratified Fluid: Modeling Deep Ocean Convection,” J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , pp. 3032–3050.

Domaradzki, J. A., and Saiki, E. M., 1997, “A Subgrid-Scale Model Based on the Estimation of Unresolved Scales of Turbulence,” Phys. Fluids

[CrossRef], 9 , pp. 2148–2164.

Kimmel, S. J., and Domaradzki, J. A., 2000, “Large Eddy Simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard Convection Using Subgrid Scale Estimation Model,” Phys. Fluids

[CrossRef], 12 , pp. 169–184.

Kimmel, S. J., and Domaradzki, J. A., 2001, “Large Eddy Simulation of Rotating Turbulent Convection Using the Subgrid Scale Estimation Model,” "*DNS/LES—Progress and Challenges, Proceedings of the Third AFOSR International Conference on Direct Numerical Simulation and Large Eddy Simulation*", C.Liu, L.Sakall, and T.Beutner, eds., Greyden Press, Arlington, TX, pp. 351–358.

Horiuti, K., 2001, “Transformation Properties of Subgrid-Scale Models in a Frame of Reference Undergoing Rotation,” Modern Simulations S. 123.

Domaradzki, J. A., Loh, K. C., and Yee, P. P., 2002, “Large Eddy Simulations Using the Subgrid-Scale Estimation Model and Truncated Navier-Stokes Dynamics,” Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn.

[CrossRef], 15 , pp 421–450.