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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Continuum Theory That Couples Creep and Self-Diffusion

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. Suo

Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138e-mail: suo@deas.harvard.edu

J. Appl. Mech 71(5), 646-651 (Nov 09, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1781176 History: Received February 04, 2004; Revised March 17, 2004; Online November 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
The marker velocity v defines the convection flux, v/Ω. We can also independently measure the net atomic flux N. The atomic flux in excess of the convection flux defines the diffusion flux J.
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The material is subject to three types of load: the wind force Fi in the volume, the traction ti on the surface, and the chemical potential on the surface
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A conductor film, sandwiched between dielectrics, is subject to an electron wind force and a stress gradient. The stress gradient can cause both a self-diffusion flux and a creep flow.
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A thin conductor subject to a through-thickness wind force. The diffision flux is in the same direction as the wind force, and the marker velocity is in the opposite direction. Tension is generated near one face of the film, and compression the other.
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An excess of the chemical potential on the surface drives atoms to inject into the material, leading to compressive stress
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An aluminum film has a columnar grain structure, with top and bottom surfaces covered by the native oxide. Under an electron wind force in the plane of the film, aluminum atoms diffuse fast on the grain boundaries, but negligibly on the film surfaces. The divergence of the diffusion flux will place atoms in the x1 and x2-directions, but not in the x3-direction.

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