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TECHNICAL PAPERS

On Corrosion-Induced Creep and the Shedding of Oxide Pest From Metal Plates

[+] Author and Article Information
D. L. Marshall, M. E. Taylor, Y. Ivshin, G. Diderrich

Johnson Controls, Inc., P.O. Box 591, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0591

T. J. Pence

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226e-mail: pence@egr.msu.edu

J. Appl. Mech 70(5), 625-632 (Oct 10, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1604837 History: Received March 03, 2002; Revised March 27, 2003; Online October 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Evans,  H. E., 1995, “Stress Effects in High Temperature Oxidation of Metals,” Int. Met. Rev., 40, pp. 1–40.
Lagoudas,  D. C., Ma,  X., Miller,  D. A., and Allen,  D. H., 1995, “Modeling of Oxidation in Metal Matrix Composites,” Int. J. Eng. Sci., 33, pp. 2327–2343.
Srolovitz,  D. J., and Ramanarayanan,  T. A., 1984, “An Elastic Analysis of Growth Stresses During Oxidation,” Oxid. Met., 22, pp. 133–146.
Grinfeld,  M. A., 1994, “Stress Corrosion and Stressed Induced Surface Morphology of Epitaxial Films,” Scanning Microsc., 8, pp. 869–882.
Bull,  S. J., 1998, “Modeling of Residual Stress in Oxide Scales,” Oxid. Met., 49, pp. 1–17.
Evans,  H. E., 1988, “Cavity Formation and Metallurgical Changes Induced by Growth of Oxide Scale,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 4, pp. 1089–1098.
Evans,  A. G., and Cannon,  R. M., 1989, “Stresses in Oxide Films and Relationships With Cracking and Spalling,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 43, pp. 243–268.
Entchev,  P. B., Lagoudas,  D. C., and Slattery,  J. C., 2001, “Effects of Non-Planar Geometries and Volumetric Expansion in the Modeling of Oxidation in Titanium,” Int. J. Eng. Sci., 39, pp. 695–714.
Bernstein,  H. L., 1987, “A Model for the Oxide Growth Stress and Its Effect on the Creep of Metals,” Metall. Trans. A, 18, pp. 975–986.
Touati,  A., Roelandt,  J. M., Armanet,  F., Lambertin,  M., and Beranger,  G., 1993, “Un Modele pour le Calcul des Deformations et des Contraintes Residuelles dans les Couches d’Oxyde lors de Chargements Thermiques a Regime Variable,” J. Phys. IV, C9, pp. 1023–1029.
Kraus, H., 1980, Creep Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Lagoudas,  D. C., and Ding,  Z., 1998, “Numerical Computation of Metal Oxidation Problems on Bounded Domains,” Int. J. Eng. Sci., 36, pp. 367–381.
Holmes,  D. R., and Pascoe,  R. T., 1972, “Strain/Oxidation Interactions in Steels and Model Alloys,” Werkst. Korros., 23, pp. 859–870.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Overall in-plane strain εyy=ε⁁yy(×100) is the same in the metal and the oxide due to displacement continuity (Eq. (1)). After the first few days, accounting for the additional oxide strain due to prior creep (III) gives rise to significantly larger total strain than either an elastic analysis (I) or the primitive analysis that neglects prior creep (II). In particular, the total strain under (III) is not bounded by the value αy=0.003, the asymptote for (I) and (II).
Grahic Jump Location
Creep allows the stress in the metal σyy to relax from that predicted by a pure elastic analysis (I). Accounting for oxide strain magnification due to prior creep (III) gives higher stress than an analysis that ignores this effect (II).
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of the oxide stress σ⁁yy through the oxide thickness as the oxide layer progresses into the base metal. Different curves represent different five day intervals, ranging from t=5 to t=60. Graph on right provides magnification near the external surface, x=0.0635.
Grahic Jump Location
Once shedding begins at tff the strain increases dramatically (IV) compared to a situation in which oxide under tension does not fail (III). This strain increase for (IV) is due to the loss of tensile load carrying capacity in the oxide, which increases the tensile stress in the metal as shown in Fig. 5.
Grahic Jump Location
In this example, oxide shedding begins after stress relaxation has already begun in the metal. Shedding leads to additional loading of the metal, and the post-shedding stress experiences a mild increase with time.
Grahic Jump Location
The oxide thickness increases at the corrosion rate prior to shedding. Once shedding begins, the oxide thickness experiences an abrupt transient prior to a period of only mild thickness decrease.

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