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RESEARCH PAPERS

Normal Shock Waves Structured by Nonequilibrium Radiative and Collisional Ionization

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph H. Clarke, Michele Onorato

Division of Engineering and Center for Fluid Dynamics, Brown University, Providence, R. I.

J. Appl. Mech 37(3), 783-800 (Sep 01, 1970) (18 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3408611 History: Received July 08, 1969; Revised January 21, 1970; Online July 12, 2010

Abstract

Normal shock waves structured by nonequilibrium radiative and collisional ionization are solved analytically on the basis of a generalized radiation model. Just downstream of the interior embedded discontinuity, it is assumed and justified a posteriori that electron-atom collisional ionization to local thermodynamic equilibrium occurs over a length that is sufficiently small compared with the relevant one-step photon path. It is discovered that the appropriate emission-convection ratio is also a rather small quantity. Both small quantities lead to iterations studied to second approximation. The resulting shock morphology consists of a strong precursor, the embedded discontinuity, an inner collisional tail, and an outer radiative tail. Relevant calculations for helium are presented for a downstream degree of ionization of 0.8, an upstream temperature of 300 deg K, and upstream pressures of 10−3 , 10−4 , and 10−5 atm.

Copyright © 1970 by ASME
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